sábado, 23 de agosto de 2014

TEACHER TRAINING: THE CHALLENGE OF AUTHENTIC AND COMPLEX EVALUATION


Prepared for: Dra. Virginia Gonfiantini          
Prepared by: Athens Institute for Education and Research       
Date: 16th Annual International Conference on Education, 19-22 May 2014,
Athens, Greece     


ATHENS INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
8 Valaoritou Str., Kolonaki, 10671 Athens, Greece.  Tel.: + 30 210-36.34.210 Fax: + 30 210-36.34.209 -Email: info@atiner.gr URL: www.atiner.gr

Athens, 7 April 2014

Virginia Gonfiantini
Teacher of Teachers
U.N.R. Universidad Nacional de Rosario - Argentina
 Our Ref: EDU2014/3882297
Dear Dr. Gonfiantini,

I would like to inform you that the selection committee has decided to invite you to speak at our 16th Annual International Conference on Education, 19-22 May 2014, Athens, Greece, on the topic of:
Teacher Training: The Challenge of Authentic and Complex Evaluation

Please be prepared for an oral presentation of 20 minutes including discussion and visit the conference website: http://www.atiner.gr/education.htm for more information. Confirm your participation by completing and sending the registration form before 21 April 2014 by fax, regular mail or email. The registration form can be downloaded from: http://www.atiner.gr/2014/REG-EDU.doc. For your convenience, a special conference rate has been arranged with a hotel. Please complete the registration form for the nights you want accommodation for. Reservations should be made as soon as possible as the offer only stands as long as rooms are available. The selection of the hotel will be done 1-2 weeks before the conference. ATINER will select one of the hotels available on the following list: http://www.atiner.gr/docs/Hotels_List.htm. If you need more information on the accommodation please send us an email (not to the hotel itself) at info@atiner.gr.
The conference’s social program is available at http://www.atiner.gr/2014/SOC-EDU.htm. These academic events give the opportunity to our conference participants to further discuss the issues developed during the formal sessions and establish academic collaborations with other scholars from many different countries. This is the essence of all our conferences because it serves the mission of our Organization as a world Association of academics and researchers.
If you want your paper to be considered (peer reviewed) for publication, please submit your manuscript by 21 April 2014 following the paper guidelines, which can be downloaded from: http://www.atiner.gr/docs/Paper_Guidelines.htm. Papers cannot exceed 5000 words (everything included) and must be sent by email only. For more information, please see our abstract and paper publication policy at http://www.atiner.gr/docs/Publication_Policy.htm. Please, do not fax your paper. In addition to your paper being considered for publication, the Institute publishes an abstract book with an ISBN number and a Conference Paper Series with an ISSN number. The latter publications come out immediately after the conference.
Please support ATINER by asking your library to order our publications from previous conferences, either as books or selected conference proceedings. Visit our publications website for contents and order forms (http://www.atiner.gr/docs/BOOK_PUBLICATIONS.htm). Your library can subscribe for free to our new series of online academic journals available on http://www.atiner.gr/journals.htm.
I look forward to meeting you in Athens.

Sincerely yours,

auto0Gregory T. Papanikos
President


TEACHER TRAINING: THE CHALLENGE OF AUTHENTIC AND COMPLEX EVALUATION

Dra. Virginia Gonfiantini (*)

Abstract

Evaluation is a complex task involving a series of social implications, for it raises the commitment for real participation of all parties involved in this process. In every act of evaluation that becomes aware and challenged, a multiple game clearly emerges: at the same time the interaction with the other person is evaluated, it is also assessed the efficiency of the evaluation; evaluating the very same evaluator on the decision making, regarding the progress of a process. Educational Evaluation forces us to deal with a space of conflict. Regardless of the different perspectives that have approached the Evaluation issue, it is important to point out that it is always an act of communication, since it involves the production of knowledge and its circulation among the various stakeholders.
Thus, we propose a new look on the evolution of the concerns for building an authentic and complex Evaluation of Teacher Training in Argentina. From the educational kairos, this evaluation questions and poses another scenario for education in the XXI century and in the Planetary Age.

Keywords: evaluation, educational kairos, complexity, competences

Introduction

Today, Educational Institutions must direct their efforts towards the training of professionals capable of responding to the challenges of a society in a permanent state of change. That implies the generation of innovation strategies and alternatives to critically participate in the transformation of the teaching-learning process. As actors in the Educative Community, we intend to analyze the theoretical basis on which Education is built: Epistemology, Sociology, Economy, Philosophy, Biology and Psychology. Through the consideration of the practice as a possible scenario for reflection, we propose a multidimentional look in order to understand:
* Gonfiantini, Virginia. Educational Scientist from the National University of Rosario (Argentina), and Doctor in Complex Thought, Multiversidad Edgar Morin. (Hermosillo. Sonora. México)

 
l the approaches, traditions, theories, educational policies, that translate into a specific way of selection, organization, distribution and validation of contents;
l the idea of teacher’s training, teaching practice, and predominant teaching-learning process.;
l the way of forming and acting the discourse and the decision making for the improvement of the educative practice.
From that point of view, we proposed to consider Evaluation as a fundamental stage, and opted to keep –as a tool- a training journal of the monthly meetings, to share findings and reflections, previous to the incorporation of the professional portfolios. Being this a pilot activity for the institutional implementation, only the teachers that accepted to be evaluated to understand Evaluation, take part. This way of looking at and questioning reality, provides significant answers, allowing to ask and answer in a different way to the problems of the Educational Field, and perceiving new ways to achieve higher quality in Education and school competencies required nowadays. But, to reach that point, first we need to explain where we begin, and where we intend to go to.

Analyzing What the Text Says in Context

The isolation of Educational Systems is produced by the incapability to address the complex networks built within the Social System, taken by a rational view, extremely specialized and reductive, that fragments the comprehensive understanding, modeling an explanation from the simplification of the complex phenomenons observed. To understand Teaching through the glasses of Complexity means to approach the Educational Event as a process destined to promote learning and the integral development of subjects, for them to be able to participate in the decision making process and support their choices. That implies to enable them to build knowledge, consciously and reflectively, from real inquiry and search processes; open processes, flexible and cooperative, which respond to the profile of a subject able to produce, research and reflect, not just reproduce. From that perspective, we consider the syllabus as a “model of complex and intersubjective construction of knowledge”, where the knowledge is not transmitted, but constructed-deconstructed-reconstructed, in a continuous recursive dialogue through the actions of the different actors. From the complex point of view, it is the one that develops in the classroom-mind-social context, where a teacher-knowledge-student relationship, based in teaching, learning and re-learning recursives, is revealed. (Gonfiantini, 2013, page 80)

About Theories and Practice in the Teaching-Learning Processes

From the Re-conceptualist Theories, “Didactics” is defined as the Science that studies the teaching-learning processes. The idea teachers have about this relationship will determine their behavior in the classroom. That is to say, they will be able to think their practice from the transmission of out of context, fragmented contents, or guide their practice towards the “ecologized” construction-reconstruction-deconstruction of class contents. Gimeno Sacristán and Pérez Gómez (1992), as a critique to Scardamalia and Bereiter’s article from 1989, differentiate four approaches to the understanding of teaching. These approaches are defined on the basis of their three-way relationship, teacherócontentóstudent:

l Teaching as Cultural transmission, implies to deliver the new bodies of disciplinary knowledge that constitute Culture, to the new generations, concentrating more in the disciplinary contents than in the student’s abilities or interests.
l Teaching as abilities training, looks back to the development and training of formal abilities and capacities, from the simplest ones (reading, writing, calculation), up to the most complex (problem solving, planning, reflecting, evaluating). The main problem is that such a process is presented to the student as isolated from its context, appearing as demotivating and lacking practical application.
l Teaching as encouragement of natural development, since Rousseau, it considers the importance and strength of the individual’s natural disposition towards learning. Teaching must promote the resources and medium for growth. But either physical or mental growth has its own rules. This approach’s weak spot is its idealistic character. Man’s development through History is a development conditioned by historic, cultural, social, political events, with their multiple mutual interactions.
l Teaching as the production of conceptual changes, goes back to Socrates’ philosophy, and closer to our days, Piaget’s, to whom learning is a process of transformation, more than of accumulation of contents. The student is perceived as an active processor of information, and the teacher, as a provoker of the transforming dialectic process. The importance is on the student’s thoughts, beliefs, capacities and interests, and not in the disciplinary structure.  

The previously mentioned authors state that only this last approach considers learning as a process that allows the permanent transformation of the student’s thought, attitudes and behavior, as it causes cognitive conflict. In figures 1 and 2, it is shown how each approach to learning is related to a way of understanding life in the classroom.

Figure 1: Competences according to the field analyzed. Developed by author.

                            

Figure 2: Different views on the Teaching and learning relationship. Developed by autor.

It is important to identify them, as it allows teachers to intervene and facilitate the processes of reconstruction and transformation of thought, and the student’s actions, by knowing the multiple influences that, expected or not, desired or not, take place in the classroom, and decisively determine learning. This construction inescapably requires to think the classroom as a multidimentional space, an educational kairos (Gonfiantini, 2013), where different interaction patterns take place: social (among the participant individuals), epistemological (in relation to how the contents are conceived), and psychological (not only the logical and psychological significance –Ausubel-, but the subconscious –desires, eros, love-, all that is related to transference and relationships). Each of these dimensions and interactions generate the possibility of new ways of comprehension and intervention, which depending on the supporting theory, move among technical relations, interpretative understanding methods and ethical-political intervention understanding methods. Morin (2001, page 41) says: “Man only becomes complete to the fullest as a human being, by and within the Culture. There is no Culture without a human brain (biological device fitted with acting, perceiving, knowing and learning skills), and there is no spirit (mind), that is to say, capacity of consciousness and thought without culture.”

 

About Methodologies for Competence Training

The methodological choice depends on the teacher’s idea about the teaching-learning process, adapted to the achievement of educational goals. The option for Competence Training implies the approach and knowledge of the professional and social context of the future graduates, as it provides strategies and tools to intervene and potentiate their ability to learn collaboratively with others, from an interaction of ideas, experiences and points of view. These characteristics concentrate on a methodology that promote reflection on the “what”, the “why”, the “how”, and on the results to improve performance. That is to say, the development of the most complex competence of all: learning to learn with critical thinking, complex and recursive. Within this frame, the teacher’s two greatest tasks in the methodological field can be summarized as follows, according to Fernandez March (2006, pages 35-36):
l Planning, designing and re-organizing learning experiences and activities, consistently with the expected results, considering the necessary spaces and resources.
l Facilitating, guiding, motivating and helping students in their learning process.
This way, the Methodological Construction becomes the vehicle through which students, as pedagogical subjects, acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes, in a determined space and time, together with others, therefore, develop competency. In Morin’s terms, we can speak of an ecologized methodological construction. We wonder, together with Edelstein (1997), why do we propose the method as a construction?
Díaz Barriga (1985) states that the method implies an articulation between knowledge as objective production (objective epistemological), and knowledge as a learning problem (subjective epistemological). Defined this way, the methodological construction is not absolute but relative. As Morin states, if we define the method as absolute, we are thinking it from a simplified point of view, as an instruction model based on techniques that pre-define rigorously and lineally organized steps, to achieve designs that allow the acquirement of the best product, valid in different contexts. Speaking from relativity, Díaz Barriga considers that the methodological construction takes shape from the discipline conceptual structure (syntactic and semantic), and the subject’s cognitive structure (teachers and students), in readiness to take over it; construction, singular in character, which is generated in relation to a particular research and particular subjects. In this scenario, the teacher is the subject that assumes the task of elaborating a teaching proposal, born from “a singularly creative act of articulation” (Edelstein and Coria, 1995, page 85), which entwines the discipline’s logics with the multiple ways of interaction and appropriation of the intervening subjects. The socio-cognitive conflict, as constructive confrontation of personal representations, is produced not only at the student’s level, but at the teacher’s, in a situation of continuous learning and openness to questioning and other views.

About Competence Evaluation

Poggi et al (1996) specify that, when talking about Evaluation, there is a wide variety of meanings, with certain terminological ambiguity, as it may express an aspect and its contrary, the precise and the approximation, the quantitative and the qualitative, for example: verify, measure, value, understand, comprehend, apprehend, know, judge, compare, validate, appreciate, say, help, encode, explain, estimate, experience, position, express. We can also address the issue of Evaluation, from, at least, two perspectives:
l To evaluate involves the act of precisely measure and express an encoded and quantified figure.
l To evaluate implies such operations as to estimate, appreciate, apprehend; in other words, to make a qualitative judgment, approximate to reality.
In general, one of the functions of Evaluation is to collect information for decision making, that benefits the student’s comprehensive development, not just the mastery of concepts. Evaluation, as well as other educational processes, involves a project, the search for agreement and definitions on some of the following issues: what do we want to evaluate? With what purpose? How to evaluate? When? For whom? For the Evaluation Process to be effective, it is necessary to distinguish a series of basic concepts, and at the moment of the establishment of premises, we shall consider processes and not just results, knowledge together with values, complex cognitive skills, attitudes; the evaluation of the student who “knows” and the one who “does not know”; the respect of contextual conditions, abilities and efforts; the generation of quantitative and qualitative ways; compatibility with the teaching-learning process, including the ethical dimension; functionality with the changing processes; internal and external being, accompaniment in the stages of the continuous educational process, being a paraevaluation and metaevaluation.
As evaluation is not exclusively reduced to measuring, the evaluating processes must promote actions towards:
l The analysis the student’s starting point (diagnosis evaluation), the educative processes that took place (process evaluation), and the results obtained (final evaluation).
l The evaluation of the positive aspects and the correction of the student’s weaknesses (attitudinal evaluation).
l The strengthening of the student’s self esteem, with constant motivation for continuous learning (life-long learning).
The complex curriculum and the curriculum by competences demand structural and operational strategies for its evaluation, require conceptual openness, strategies identification and the proposal of models that provide information on the learning development of the participants. If not analyzed from a reductionist point of view, it goes back to the teaching tradition that guides the practice from an open attitude, flexible, critical, and questioning; where dialogue, articulation, reflection, interrelation of knowledge, abilities, and skills of the educational kairos are emphasized. Ultimately, it is a subjective and singular construction, an action plan developed by the subject through knowledge (to know, to know how, to know to be, to know to un-learn and re-learn), and through a lifetime. This knowledge in action that the subject implements, articulates with the macro-context: epistemological, practical, methodological, social and political, that includes and determines it. (Gonfiantini, 2013a, page 13).

Practical Proposition for Competence Evaluation

As in all respects, when we talk about Evaluation, we must consider the different alternatives, because continuous learning and constant improvement are always the goal. Gathering and analyzing substantial information requires some previously agreed criteria. But to agree on activities that reflect that openness is one of the starting points. Some possibilities may be: practical examples and problems, open book examination, dossier, project design, conceptual map, personal opinion, self evaluation, interpretation, analysis and critical assessment of documents, cooperative evaluation through group dynamics, co-evaluation, open questions, portfolios. In the case we proposed, the teacher’s practice was transformed into study object, to lead to the understanding of these alternatives. As Pérez Gómez (2008, page 426) states, and resembling Morin’s idea, this conception on the Evaluation Process implies:
l A conceptual change, to allow unexpected results and unpredictable events.
l A methodological change, that modifies the primitive inflexible formal strategy, and includes informal procedures.
l A change of approach, that allows to gather information on processes as well as on products.
l An ethical and political change, that provides information to all the participants and gathers opinions and interpretations.
  If we transfer this option to the scope of competence, with Trillo Alonso (2005, pages 85-103), we start defining them as “the group of knowledge, skills and attitudes that apply to the exercise of a profession”. It is pertinent to explain: (1) that knowledge refers to a certain understanding and comprehension of the knowledge of a determined field, scientifically valid and collected throughout history, (2) that skills refers to the “know how”, to a certain understanding on the set and development of cognitive or motor skills, that allow people to decide what is required at any given moment, and how to perform it, and (3) about attitudes, it indicates “know how to be” something and somewhere, and certainly includes the “know how to feel”. In short, it refers to a certain understanding about interpersonal relations, about social integration according to certain ethical principles, and also, about emotional balance. It states that we must know the teachers and future teachers’ current situation, about the triple competence of “know”, “know how” and “know to be” in the real educational evaluation. In a certain way, it continues Pérez Gómez’ line of work, and proposes to substitute the traditional disciplinary curriculum with its academicism obsession, for another based on trouble shooting, and organized in work, interpretation and experimentation projects. As Morin, he states that disciplinary knowledge is valuable because it expresses its usefulness as an analysis tool to understand all sorts of problems, theoretical and practical; physical, economical, ethical or artistic, that affect citizens. But if we judge the disciplinary content as a mere instrument to the achievement of academic goals related to certification and accreditation, the meaningless content structure could be kept, the one that subordinates eros, desire; that alienates behavior, that continues to teach submissiveness.
Pérez Gómez prefers to talk about authentic evaluation, when he expresses that the goal of compulsory schooling is not the mere transmission of information and disciplinary learning, but the use of appropriation tools for individuals to progressively, reflexively and recursively rebuild their ways of thinking and acting. How to enforce it? To answer this question, he goes back to the contributions of Education Psychology, mostly Ausubel’s, and considers that:
l an issue that lacks meaning cannot promote a deep approach on learning, which is meaningful, motivated and oriented to understanding.
l it is fundamental for students to use knowledge and not just “know things”. In order to do this, it is necessary to present them with dilemmas and suggest ways to resolve them, in the face of which they can develop processes of discussion, rather than adopting close ways or solutions.

He concludes, as well as all the authors analyzed, with a very suggesting question: what good will the most incredible instruments do, if we do not have a musician to play them in a way that makes us tremble with emotion? The answer is as obvious as it is old: we have to educate future teachers in attitudes and values, in commitment, in coherence, in example and in the hope of teaching-learning processes that are able of self-eco-re-organization, in the methodological construction and in authentic education evaluation. In short, according to a rationality that is not merely technical, but above all, reflexive, critical, political and complex, knitting heterogeneous elements from the eros.
We must still consider some critical aspects that define fundamental criteria regarding Equitable Evaluation. The value of Equity is only understood from the Complexity approach. We can mention, among others: lack of coercion, community interest over personal interest, equal and complete information to all the participants of the evaluation, and equal access to information resources, responsibility for one’s choices, realistic analysis of possibilities in non-ideal situations, commitment to participate as stipulated.
This angle in the search for the union of Evaluation, Education and Complexity, allows us different alternatives when we propose an Evaluation Process: without operations separating social sectors keeping inequalities, with criteria that ensures an obstacles free atmosphere, capable of identifying activities that promote the communication process, discovering structures that reinforce differences. In the same way, we cannot ignore the students’ situation as regards this particular moment society is going through: lack of interest in the future, the idea that they will not achieve security through education, skepticism on education, not only from the students but from their families. Therefore, to evaluate Evaluation is also a part of this complex approach. The feedback allows us to know the way, because when questioning on data, knowledge and communication, relevant understanding is viable. That base shaped from ethical rules, objectives and shared information will make the educational community feel responsible to construct and self-construct.

Construction of Knowledge and Construction of Authentic, Complex and Competence Evaluation

From this development, it can be deduced that, in the field of Construction of Knowledge in Teacher’s Training and particularly in Evaluation, teachers must change their role as mere transmitter, and fight the idea settled in the social imaginary that only specialists are capable of the construction of knowledge. The proposed Training Journal, which is in progress, allows us to understand that evaluating from such conception establishes channels of reflection for:
l developing and consolidating a position of permanent review of the educational practice, generating a reflective, critical and transforming attitude,
l knowing and confronting the different contributions from the mainstream schools of thought,
l socially constructing knowledge as an instance that allows to generate spots for debate and production, for analysis and construction of knowledge in a collective and in solidarity among the different members of a team,
l socially constructing knowledge, where it is not transmitted but constructed and reconstructed in a permanent knowledge dialogue and recursive loop between information and action of the different actors involved.
Therefore, to approach the field of Evaluation from the Complex perspective means to produce knowledge about the educational reality we are working with, and discuss the different mechanisms that allow us to institutionalize them in a way that enable its articulation and debate in spaces other than those of its production. Liston and Zeichner (1193) suggest a similar proposition. Their works are related to the improvement of the Teachers Training practice. They promote the creation of a curriculum for Teachers Training that greatly emphasizes current knowledge on political, historical and social conditions and context in schooling. The reflexive test of educational practices on teachers trained in a critical conscious, inevitably causes questioning on descriptive knowledge of concrete and general educational situations. Teacher’s trainers must articulate the future teacher’s educational beliefs and values, and highlight their beliefs as regards the social context of schooling, examining alternative frames. This recognition will allow us to see more clearly, and to change, if necessary, the social beliefs which are part of our professional identity. Also, and in a more instrumental area, we must make an effort to understand how work conditions and schools institutional rules may enable or obstruct these educational goals.
As emerges from the educative research carried out in order to describe, characterize and discuss what constitutes a determined kind of teacher, we can distinguish four ideological perspectives (Liston and Zeichner, 1993), in conflict among themselves all throughout history, in most teachers’ training institutions: Academic, Technical, Practical and of the Social Reconstruction. The proposal we undertake suggests to add a fifth one, the Complex perspective, to take into consideration not only the relations among Knowledge, Power, Ideology, Culture, Class and Economy, but to demonstrate the importance of the Social and Political Theory for the approach to schooling and specifically, to the curriculum as a microcosms of analysis in the Planetary Age. That is to say, we start from different frames to further deepen into an approach. Immersed in a social an economical transformation without precedents, in which, although scientific and technical knowledge is and will be increasingly more sophisticated, they entail unbelievable blindness and disorientation about the consequences of these transformations in human reality. The key question is how to teach to think in the Planetary Age? Why a sophisticated knowledge and an evolving techno-science may, however, not be pertinent? In the light of these questions, Morin answers (1998):
“… because on one side, we are in a time of compartmentalized knowledge, and isolated from each other. It is not only specialization, it is hyper-specialization, which arises when specializations cannot communicate to one another, and a juxtaposition of compartments makes them forget communication and solidarity among these specialized compartments. Everywhere is the Kingdom of Experts, specialized technicians who deal with partial problems and forget the big problems, because the big problems are transverse, multiple, multidimentional, transdisciplinary, and in our age of globalization, they are planetary.” (page 9)
Teaching, besides having a function, is also a specialization, the profession must become again a political task, to “resuscitate the mission of the teacher” (Morin, 2011) Let’s remember that the Complex Thought can be regarded as a new way of thinking and relating to knowledge, not from mutilation and separation, but from the re-binding and from the ecologized common-union, where the re-introduction of the pedagogical subject in the intellective act is proposed.

Recursive Reflections

To speak about Complexity is to speak about a search, a method: it is to indicate a way, in Machado’s sense, the one that makes the path as we goes, the one that foresees the announcement in the way. What is the announcement? Well, to avoid despair as well as false hope. (Morin, 1999)
The mission of Education in the Planetary Age is to strengthen the emergency conditions of a society-world, consisting of citizens protagonists, aware and critically committed to the construction of a Planetary Civilization. To project Evaluation from the Complex Thought offers interesting strategies to face the challenges that contemporaneity demands, beyond political circumstances. Morin (1999) invites us “to learn to live, to share, to communicate, to commune…” Thus, to complexly think a way to value, implies the polysemy of the word Evaluation, of its conception and praxis. But always taking the first step from our own evolution.

Bibliography

Díaz Barriga, A. (1985). Didáctica y currículum. México: Ediciones Nuevomar.
Edelstein, G. (1997). “Un capítulo pendiente: el método en el debate didáctico contemporáneo”. In: Corrientes didácticas contemporáneas. (1° reimp.). Buenos Aires: Paidós.
Fernández March, A. (2006).  Metodologías activas para la formación de competencias. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. From:
Freire, P.  2008. El grito manso. (2° ed.). Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI editores.
Gimeno Sacristán, J. y Pérez Gómez, A. 1992. “Enseñanza para la comprensión”. From: Comprender y transformar la enseñanza. (2ª ed.) Madrid: Morata.
Gonfiantini, V. 2013. Re-significar la formación docente desde la práctica del formador. Tesis en opción al título de Doctora en Pensamiento Complejo. 26/10/13
Gonfiantini, V. 2013a. El extrañamiento del horizonte educativo: de diálogos emancipadores y complejos. RIE 63/2. 15/11/13
Liston y Zeichner, K. (1993). Formación del profesorado y condiciones sociales de la escolarización. Madrid: Morata.
Morin, E. (1998). Cómo enseñar a pensar. Entrevista. Traducción Elisa Carnelli. Diario Clarín. From: http://www.clarin.com/diario/1998/07/06/i-01701d.htm
Morin, E. (1999). Los siete saberes necesarios para la educación  del futuro. UNESCO. Paris.
Morin, E. (2011). La vía. Para el futuro de la humanidad. Barcelona: Paidós.
Pérez Gómez, A. (2008). “Nuevos Modelos Contemporáneos de Evaluación”, en Gimeno Sacristán y Pérez Gómez, A. La enseñanza: su teoría y su práctica. (6a ed.). Madrid: Akal.
Poggi, M. et al (1996). Evaluación Nuevos Significados para una Práctica Compleja. Buenos Aires: Kapeluz.
Scardamalia, L. y Bereiter, C. (1989). Conceptions of teaching for better teaching and learning. NY Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Trillo Alonso, F. (2005).  Competencias docentes y Evaluación auténtica: ¿Falla el protagonista? Revista Perspectiva Educacional, Nº 45. Valparaíso.TEACHER TRAINING: THE CHALLENGE OF AUTHENTIC AND  COMPLEX EVALUATION
Prepared for: Dra. Virginia Gonfiantini          
Prepared by: Athens Institute for Education and Research       
Date: 16th Annual International Conference on Education, 19-22 May 2014,
Athens, Greece     

ATHENS INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
8 Valaoritou Str., Kolonaki, 10671 Athens, Greece.  Tel.: + 30 210-36.34.210 Fax: + 30 210-36.34.209 -Email: info@atiner.gr URL: www.atiner.gr

Athens, 7 April 2014

Virginia Gonfiantini
Teacher of Teachers
U.N.R. Universidad Nacional de Rosario - Argentina
 Our Ref: EDU2014/3882297
Dear Dr. Gonfiantini,

I would like to inform you that the selection committee has decided to invite you to speak at our 16th Annual International Conference on Education, 19-22 May 2014, Athens, Greece, on the topic of:
Teacher Training: The Challenge of Authentic and Complex Evaluation

Please be prepared for an oral presentation of 20 minutes including discussion and visit the conference website: http://www.atiner.gr/education.htm for more information. Confirm your participation by completing and sending the registration form before 21 April 2014 by fax, regular mail or email. The registration form can be downloaded from: http://www.atiner.gr/2014/REG-EDU.doc. For your convenience, a special conference rate has been arranged with a hotel. Please complete the registration form for the nights you want accommodation for. Reservations should be made as soon as possible as the offer only stands as long as rooms are available. The selection of the hotel will be done 1-2 weeks before the conference. ATINER will select one of the hotels available on the following list: http://www.atiner.gr/docs/Hotels_List.htm. If you need more information on the accommodation please send us an email (not to the hotel itself) at info@atiner.gr.
The conference’s social program is available at http://www.atiner.gr/2014/SOC-EDU.htm. These academic events give the opportunity to our conference participants to further discuss the issues developed during the formal sessions and establish academic collaborations with other scholars from many different countries. This is the essence of all our conferences because it serves the mission of our Organization as a world Association of academics and researchers.
If you want your paper to be considered (peer reviewed) for publication, please submit your manuscript by 21 April 2014 following the paper guidelines, which can be downloaded from: http://www.atiner.gr/docs/Paper_Guidelines.htm. Papers cannot exceed 5000 words (everything included) and must be sent by email only. For more information, please see our abstract and paper publication policy at http://www.atiner.gr/docs/Publication_Policy.htm. Please, do not fax your paper. In addition to your paper being considered for publication, the Institute publishes an abstract book with an ISBN number and a Conference Paper Series with an ISSN number. The latter publications come out immediately after the conference.
Please support ATINER by asking your library to order our publications from previous conferences, either as books or selected conference proceedings. Visit our publications website for contents and order forms (http://www.atiner.gr/docs/BOOK_PUBLICATIONS.htm). Your library can subscribe for free to our new series of online academic journals available on http://www.atiner.gr/journals.htm.
I look forward to meeting you in Athens.

Sincerely yours,

auto0Gregory T. Papanikos
President



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